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Thousands of Activists Stage Protests at Three German Coal Mines to Demand Bolder Climate Policies

Purists may object, but Harley-Davidson is rolling out an all-electric bike for 2020.

A sure way to get squashed like bugs. The overwhelming force that the government can bring to bear would make any movement that tried using force as a tactic a shortlived one.

Same thing, eventually, with Central and South Americans here in the U.S. - That’s going to be a shocker for some people. Can you imagine the official language of the U.S. changing from English to Spanish?

American style is to delay integration and understanding of foreign affairs by making the study of foreign languages as inaccessible as possible. It actually achieves that purpose in the short run. But I think destroying our Spanish neighboring governments, creating undeniable and huge migration, is really what is going to push the US to Spanish.
When I began to promote Chinese as a third language in my family before going to teach ESL in China, I encountered unbelievably obtuse reactions.

Mandarin, or Cantonese?

Mandarins of course. Anything else Chinese is a dialect. :slightly_smiling_face:

That’s interesting. - I believed I was taught that Mandarin and Cantonese, both being forms of the Chinese language, had their own dialects. For example, the main Mandarin dialect being the Bejing dialect.

ChInese putonghua is the national language, taught in all schools. This used to be called Mandarin. Putonghua is taught in abc form beginning in second grade to reduce local pronunciation variations. The writing is the same throughout mainland China, with dialect variations being mostly pronunciation. Taiwan uses Mandarin speech with the older version of Chinese writing, which is cumbersome due to excessive stroke counts. Cantonese is the old name for the dialect in Guangzhou and Hong Kong.

With regard to “putonghua”…“hua” means “language” - correct? What is the meaning of “putong”?

The people’s. I think the dialect was selected from one in Beijing spoke by working people, that was most simple in form. Spanish is also famous for some simplicity in form. A linguistics leader I am familiar with once said that the best thing for a language is a strong dictator.