Yours is deep and too much for me to respond to, so just a few points:
You appear to believe that money is wealth, directly. It’s not: directly it’s bits of paper or digits on accounts somewhere. Money is only a claim on available real wealth just as title deeds to a house are not wealth, the house is the wealth, and the pink slip to a car is not wealth, but merely a claim on the car, the real wealth.
You seem to think that the real value, or what could be called utility value, of an item wealth is what it sells for (like Amazon being worth $1T). Market value is determined by supply and demand, and may be way less than its utility value. A car that can enable you to add $60K a year to your income, you may be able to buy for $20k, way less than its value to you. The discovery of penicillin (that opened the door to antibiotics) netted the discovery a pittance compared to what Michael Jackson made on his album, Thriller, but it’s clear which was and is worth more in real wealth. Inflation does not add real wealth, just prices.
Shares in Amazon are bits of paper or digits on accounts. They represent a claim primarily on the income of Amazon, money. If Amazon disappeared tomorrow, the net loss to the US, would be loss of price savings on merchandise- the rest is simply redistribution. Barrels of oil are hard assets, real assets with value, not claims on assets like money or shares. If a wealth of oil disappeared tomorrow, that would be a real net loss, not redistribution.
Gold did the Spanish lots of good. If Venezuela production ends, it does not make produced shale oil one wit more valuable, of greater utility to the user - It just makes the price higher (good for the seller, bad for the buyer) because of the drop in supply.
I certainly don’t think people are worthless: a highly educated or trained workforce can produce lots of real wealth.
Price represents one man’s revenue and another man’s cost. As share prices go up and down, there is not increase or decrease in wealth by that fact alone, only redistribution. The seller gets a better price and wins, while the buyer pays more and loses: Real wealth has not changed – is redistribution.
You say the true strength of The United States is its political organization of decentralization, because to get something done everyone has to agree. This was clearly not the founders’ intent. The constitution provides, subject to Bill of Rights protection, for majority rule. If we could get back to that, where the rich man does not have a greater political voice on policy than the poor man, where the rich do not have a veto on policy, this country could change directions and go forward towards utopia. Everyone having to agree is the path to dystonia.